What is Biochemistry?
Biochemistry is an experimental science that aims to study chemical processes based on life. One girl’s biochemistry discipline, molecular biology, has experienced unprecedented growth over the last twenty years. Biochemistry is the study of the chemicals of living organisms. It has been closely associated with the great expansion in biological knowledge that has taken place during the twentieth century. Its importance lies in the fundamental understanding of how biological systems work.
It finds application in fields like agriculture, with the development of pesticides, herbicides, and so on; medicine, including the whole pharmaceutical industry; and fermentation industries, with their vast range of useful products, including dietetics, food production, and preservation.
Our understanding of biochemistry is underpinned by many exciting new developments in biology, like genetic engineering, biotechnology, ‘designer’ proteins, and molecular approaches to genetic disease.
What is biochemistry?
What is the scope of Biochemistry? Biochemistry, in its broad aspects, is the most comprehensive of all the branches of chemistry. It includes inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, which is related to the chemistry of living things, both plants, and animals. The chemical principles involved in studying biochemistry are identical to those the student has learned in preliminary chemistry courses, but they are often posed in unique and intricate relationships.
The human body is composed of a few elements that combine to form various molecules.
C, H, O, and N are the major elements of most biomolecules. Calcium plays a major role in countless biological processes, and other elements having diverse roles are potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, manganese, and iodine.
There are five major biopolymers present in all living things. They are DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, and complex lipids.
The cell is the basic unit of biology.
Understanding the molecular basis of the carrier of genetic information coupled with techniques for manipulating recombinant DNA has allowed biochemists to make breakthroughs in areas as diverse as human genetics, pharmacology, food, the environment, and evolution. Thus, biochemistry has contributed to the development of a new sector of the modern economy; biotechnology.
These techniques, associated with the structural study of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins, allow modern biochemistry to unravel the deepest secrets of life. Here are the complete details covered in What is biochemistry?
What are BioMolecules, and What are they?
Only about 30 of the more than 90 naturally occurring chemical elements are essential to live organisms. Most of the elements in living matter have relatively low atomic numbers; only five have atomic numbers above that of selenium. The central atoms are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, which constitute 99% of the mass of most cells.
Six of the most abundant elements in the human body are also among the nine most abundant elements in seawater. Several elements abundant in humans are also components of the atmosphere and were, perhaps, present in the atmosphere before the appearance of life on earth.
Primitive seawater was most likely the liquid medium in which living organisms first arose. The primitive atmosphere was probably a source of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen, the precursors for the evolution of human life.
Biomolecules are compounds of carbon:
The chemistry of living organisms originated around the element carbon, and carbon accounts for more than half the dry weight of cells. Of greatest significance in biology is the ability of carbon atoms to share electron pairs to form very stable carbon-carbon single bonds.
Molecules containing covalently bonded carbon backbones are called organic compounds, which occur in almost limitless variety. Most biomolecules are organic compounds.
We can, therefore, conclude that the bonding versatility of carbon was a major factor in the selection of carbon compounds for the molecular machinery of cells during the origin and evolution of life.
Cellular details have been possible due to the increasing use of
- Electron microscopy,
- The introduction of methods permitting disruption of cells under mild conditions,
- High-speed, refrigerated ultracentrifuge
- DNA: The building block is deoxynucleotide; It functions as Genetic material
- RNA is made of ribonucleotide units and functions as a template for protein synthesis.
- Proteins: Made of Amino acids; Has numerous activities, e.g., Enzymatic, contractile elements, hormonal, structural, visual, etc.
- Polysaccharide: Units are glucose; Function as a storage form of energy as glucose
- Lipids: Fatty acid units; Numerous functions such as membrane components and long-term energy storage as triacylglycerols.
The chemical composition of a man:
- Proteins – 17%
- Fat – 13.8%
- Carbohydrate – 1.5%
- Water – 61.6%
- Minerals – 6.1%
Basic elements found in Living Organisms
Major elements of biomolecules
- H (Hydrogen)
- C (Carbon)
- N (Nitrogen)
- O (Oxygen)
- P (Phosphorous)
- S (Sulphur)
- Na+ (Sodium)
- Mg+2 (Magnesium)
- Cl– (Chlorine)
- K+ (Potassium)
- Ca2+ (Calcium)
- Mn (Manganese)
- Fe (Iron)
- Co (Cobalt)
- Cu (Copper)
- Zn (Zinc)
- B (Boron)
- Al (Aluminium)
- Si (Silicon)
- V (Vanadium)
- Mo (Molybdenum)
- I (Iodine)
BIOCHEMISTS, SILENT HEROES OF MEDICINE
Without basic knowledge of the molecular basis of life revealed by biochemists, a few important discoveries that have led to advances in modern medicine have been possible.
Biochemists have made some major discoveries.
- The Discovery of the Structure of DNA: James Watson and Francis Crick
- The Discovery of Insulin: Frederick Banting and Charles Best
- The Discovery of Acetaminophen (Tylenol) by Julius Axelrod
- The Discovery of Cyclosporine (used as an anti-rejection drug in organ transplantation): Jean Borel
- Discoveries that led to the development of inhibitors of 5′-phosphodiesterase (Viagra): Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, and Ferid Murad
- The Discovery of prions: a new biological principle of infection (due to mad cow disease ): Stanley B. Prusiner
Important discoveries in genetic engineering by Dr. Michael Smith, a Canadian, made possible the production and use of therapeutic proteins. This work earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993.
Challenges to overcome diseases that have been resisted are important. Meeting these challenges is part of the task of biochemists working in research.
What makes biochemists’ tasks on the day-to-day?
The biochemist makes a large variety of tasks, according to the orientation you choose and the work he plays. Tasks can range from collecting and studying laboratory tests; laboratory research; quality control and food; nutritional studies; study of the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical products; toxicological studies; research and development related to agribusiness products; control of epidemic diseases; etc. It is also often involved in theoretical research and teaching.
What characteristics should a student of biochemistry have?
Of course, there is no list of requirements to start this race, but you need some personal characteristics to succeed in this profession. You must have some passion for certain “hard” sciences such as chemistry, mathematics, biology, or physics; I am attracted to the idea of working in research; being patient, systematic, and organized; having concerns about issues concerning life, conservation, and improvement; be curious about the inner workings of living beings; be observant and persistent.
What is the work of a biochemist?
The possibilities for the professional practice of this discipline are as broad and diverse as the profession itself. They can apply for a graduate professional career in biochemistry only to give some examples, and knowledge in some of the following institutions:
- Clinical laboratories.
- Drug stores or pharmaceutical laboratories.
- Universities and research centers.
- hospitals and clinics.
- Within the departments of research, development, and production companies of the chemical, agricultural, food, paper mills, etc.
- various government agencies.
- As an expert in criminal investigations.
- We are advising on biosecurity issues.
What is studied in biochemistry?
Curricula They’ll be as varied as the discipline itself, and each house of studies conducted its orientation. Still, we can give you some basic courses that you’ll see in most of them, such as Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, design of experiments, microbiology, food science, endocrinology, immunology, lab, statistics, analytical chemistry, mathematical analysis, algebra, etc.
Advantages of studying biochemistry:
- The variety of branches into which it is divided allows you to achieve greater specialization and find the labor niche that stands out.
- The labor supply is wide and growing every day.
- During your studies, you will acquire varied knowledge that will allow you to involve in other disciplines in case you cannot find the desired output in biochemistry.
- While not all areas, the majority of your knowledge as a Biochemist will serve anywhere in the world, wherever you reside.
Disadvantages to studying biochemistry:
- Most undergraduates in biochemistry are long-lasting.
- The specialists recommend performing some graduate to achieve specialization and be appropriately inserted into the workplace.
- The subjects of such systems have some complexity, which may involve an intensity of important study.
While working out is different, it depends on the state of development of some areas in the country where you carry out.