Biomolecules

Titration Curve of Glycine: The zwitter ionic changes

titration curve of glycine and zwitter form

Glycine is optically inactive, simplest amino acid because it has no asymmetric carbon atom. Acid-Base titration involves the gradual addition (or) removal of protons. It has three different stages when the Glycine undergoes acid-base titration. What is Amino acid and its Structural Chemistry?Color reactions of Amino acidsWhat are Zwitter Ion and Isoelectric point Steps of Titration curve of Glycine Stage …

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What is Tautomerization and its changes? (Basics)

tautomerization: isomerism of tautomers

What is Tautomerization? Typically, this occurs as the migration of hydrogen atoms (protons) by an exchange of one single bond with a double bond. In solutions where tautomerism is possible, a chemical equilibrium between the two tautomers is obtained. The ratio of tautomers depends on many factors, including temperature, solvent, and pH. Tautomerism is a special case of structural isomerism. …

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Antioxidants and their protective role against free radicals

Antioxidants and their protective role against free radicals

Survey of literature indicates that each of the 60 trillion cells in the human body takes 10,000 oxidative hits/sec due to the production of harmful molecules called free radicals. Free radicals are chemically active atoms (groups of atoms) or molecular fragments that have a charge due to an excess or a deficient number of electrons. Free radicals found in living …

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Carbohydrates are the Staff of Life. Why?

Carbohydrates are Life of Staff. Why

Carbohydrates have the general formula [CH2O]n where n is a number between 3 and 6. Carbohydrates function in short-term energy storage (such as sugar); as intermediate-term energy storage (starch for plants and glycogen for animals); and as structural components in cells (cellulose in the cell walls of plants and many protists), and chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and other …

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Nucleic Acids are the Molecular Language of life

nucleic acids language

Nucleic acids are organic polymers, composed of monomer units known as nucleotides. Nucleotides are energy-rich compounds that drive metabolic processes in all cells. They also serve as chemical signals, key links in cellular systems that respond to hormones and other extracellular stimuli, and are structural components of a number of enzyme cofactors and metabolic intermediates. There are very few different …

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Essential Fatty Acids Definition and Notes in Biology

Essential Fatty Acids

The mammalian body is able to synthesize fatty acids from Oleic acid. However, this is not the case with some fatty acids to 34 carbon atoms containing two or more double bonds; they are produced only by bacteria or plants. Mammals cannot, therefore, get their food. They are called essential fatty acids. They are also sometimes called vitamin F (outdated name). Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are essential fatty …

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Why Peptide bonds are Backbone of the Proteins?

peptide bonds - protein backbone

“The peptide is formed between the amino group (-NH2) of the first amino acid and Carboxyl group (-COOH) of the second amino acid by eliminating one molecule of water.” The amino acids are held together in a protein by covalent peptide bonds or linkages. These bonds are rather strong and serve as the cementing material between the individual amino acids. …

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Hemoglobin: Structure, Function and its Properties

Hemoglobin: Structure, Function and its Properties

Marcello Malpighi described the RBCs in 1665.Felix Hope Seyler in 1862 isolated pure Hemoglobin.Christian Bohr in 1904 discovered that hemoglobin is the transporter of oxygen.In 1912 Kutster established the structure of hemoglobin.Hans Fischer synthesized heme in the laboratory in 1920 (Nobel prize, 1930).In 1945, Linus Pauling (Nobel prize, 1954) described abnormal hemoglobins.Max Perutz (Nobel Prize, 1962) studied the 3D structure …

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